Who is God? Part 3 - The Answer

Continuation of the
Considerations from Dipl.Math. Ulrich Meyer,  November 2013
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Results from recent scientific knowledge.
The main basis of this article is the book "The Grand Design" by Stephen Hawking.
                                                                                                                                                                      The grand Design


This is a translation from German language and therefore it may be not perfect.


By unclear technical terms you can click for more information on the internet or you look for the words by Google or YouTube.


Contents:
1. Our Universe
2. Theory of relativity and quantum theory
3. From the string theory to the M-theory
4. Empty space is not empty
5. Der Big Bang
6. The cosmic evolution
7. The answer
8. Conclusion
9. Comment


1. Our universe

 By searching for an answer to the question "Who is God?" we need to look again, where we live. According to the current state of knowledge our galaxy (ancient Greek: γαλαξίας, galaxíasMilky Way‘) has 300 billion sun systems. And our universe is composed of 100 billion of such galaxies, i.e. our universe consists of 30 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 (= 3 x 10²²) sun systems. This is an incredible size and should be created after the Big Bang theory from a single point. This is difficult to understand and therefore wen eed further explanation. Humanity has so far been able to explore only a tiny part of our solar system through the moon landings directly by humans. Other planets in our solar system have been observed in detail by unmanned rocket flights which needed many years. Other solar systems and galaxies were observed by ever better telescopes and other measuring instruments on earth or with the Hubble Space Telescope from near space to expand our scientific knowledge. And these observations go more deep in the universe. On the other hand, by particle accelerators, such as the CERN in Geneva, the structure of our matter, ever explored. From this, always more exactly conclusions of the Big Bang theory were derived. This brings us to the question of who started the Big Bang? Was this our Creator, our God?


2. Theory of relativity and quantum theory

Albert Einstein with Theory of relativity   (Comment [1])  found an explanation for the structure of our universe. This is a four-dimensional space-time, the three dimensions of space and the time as the fourth dimension, in which the space is curved. With our traditional sense organs, such as our eyes, we cannot see such a structure. (See: "The world is different, as we see it!"). Similarly is our exploration to the microscopic direction. Our matter is composed of atoms, which consist of a nucleus of protons and neutrons where electrons fly around in the so-called orbitals. Consider a block of iron. Whose surface is fixed and immovable rigid. Could we now look to a point on this surface iron and we can come more and more nearer to this point until we can look to an individual iron atom, we would then see the electrons whizzing around the nucleus. This is not rigid and motionless, like the iron block appears to our eyes. Our eyes can only see things that are larger than the wavelength of visible light, since they cause a disturbance in a beam of light. The consideration of the atom described above is not possible. With the help of quantum mechanics, the science has developed a method to explain phenomena which are observed at the atomic and subatomic scale. One of the main postulates of quantum mechanics is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. It says that you cannot see certain simultaneously pairs of physical properties, so you cannot determine at the same time the location and the momentum, this means also the speed, of a particle. The reasons for this is the wave nature of particles. The stay of an elementary particle can be determined only in a probability region. In the world of quantum mechanics there are phenomena which occur to us as magic in our daily live. Thus, for example, an elementary particle can be in two different locations at the same time. If we live like in the quantum world, we would recognize other people and objects only in a kind of cloud. Thanks to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the traffic police could convict no more drivers for speeding, since they cannot simultaneously locate a car and determine its speed. It's probably better that our life happens in our old familiar surroundings.
The science has with physical theories, especially with the theory of relativity and quantum theory, looked back the history of the Universe, that this must have arisen from a big bang of a tiny point 13,7 billion years ago. This point is mathematically a singularity, this means with infinite values. The curvature of space in the Big Bang singularity would have by gravity after the theory of relativity an infinite value, which cannot calculated mathematically. Because of the smallness of the Big Bang point there must also occur quantum effects of the quantum theory. There is only one problem that the theory of relativity and quantum theory are different theories that are completely independent of each other and have no common intersection points. There are no problem areas that can be solved simultaneously by the theory of relativity and quantum theory.
The problem of incompatibility of relativity and quantum theory had also been shown in the try, our four fundamental interactions of nature, the Weak and Strong Interaction, the Electromagnetism and the Gravitation bring together. The weak and the electromagnetic interaction could be combined with a theory of Electroweak Interaction 1967 (of Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg). A conjunction with the strong interaction give us the so-called Standard Model. Thus, the so-called nuclear interactions (relative to the nucleus) were connected. However, it was not possible to incorporate the gravity. This also reflects the conflict between theory of relativity and quantum theory.


3. From the string theory to the M-Theory

By the search for more explanations about our universe, and especially the Big Bang, scientists are therefore looking for a grand unified theory, which included the previous theories such as theory of relativity and quantum theory as parts (See: "Who is God? Part 2"). With the so-called String theory it seems we have come closer to this purpose. The String theory states that the elementary particles, which are the basic building blocks of our universe, are no points but they are strings, which are one-dimensional lines or threads that can swing. With this assumption that we are made from swinging things, is not so easy to understand. But the longer you work with string theory, the better you can imagine this situation. Consider also that, according to Einstein's formula E = mc² from the special theory of relativity that matter is equal to a corresponding energy that can be shown as a vibrating string. With the string theory it has be shown that these strings can exist mathematical stable only in a 10-dimensional space. There were also various string theories which give different solutions to various problems. If you also include the theory of gravitation with the strings theories, you need an 11-dimensional space for the string. This higher dimensional space appears first difficult to understand. But it is better to understand, because the other dimensions besides the three spatial dimensions and the time dimension are called small rolled-up dimensions that we cannot see. These rolled-up dimensions can be described mathematically and are called Calabi-Yau space or Calabi-Yau manifold. A rolled-up dimension one can explain himself by the following. When a cable is stretched between two trees, it appears from a distance as a one-dimensional line. Each point of the line can be determined by the distance from one of the two trees as a coordinate. Now, if an ant would run on this line, for example, it could not only run along the line but also around the cord. To determine the exact location of an ant on the line you need then besides the distance from one of the trees also a value that determines the location of the ant around the cord. This system then describes a two-dimensional space of a large and a small rolled-up dimension. The rolled-up dimensions in string theories have a size of the Planck length, this means a size of 10 -35 m (Comment [2]), which is unimaginably small and much smaller than atoms. This magnitude cannot be understood by our sense organs. As I talk before, there are in fact five different string theories that can explain any part of the range of physical problems for themselves .The M-theory is now a summary of these five string theories. It is not a theory in the usual sense, but we have to imagine it like the map representation of our earth. If one wants to represent our earth on a single card, such as in a Mercator projection, the magnitudes of areas at the poles and the equator are distorted due to the spherical shape of the earth. If you want represent our earth with no distortion, you have to take more cards, where every map is only an individual continent. All cards together then give a truer picture of the earth. Thus, one must also imagine the M-theory, that this five string theories cover all physical situations in our life and can explain them. Anyway, this theory was able to predict many previously problematic physical situations with correct values. With this M-theory, it is probably the only way to connect the theory of relativity and quantum theory, and thus to explain the Big Bang point so that it can be predicted with finite values ​​and specially with a finite gravitational value.


4. Empty space is not empty

We want look now to a completely empty room and we want do the same scenario as described above with the iron block. When you look first to the empty room we see nothing. If we go very nearer to a tiny spot like by the iron block, we would suddenly see whirling particles. This is then again a phenomenon that totally contradicts our senses, because the empty space suddenly is no longer empty. After the Heisenberg uncertainty principle there is no empty space possible. Because in an empty room the value of a field is exactly zero and also the rate of change of the field is zero, since the space is empty. Because the uncertainty principle does not allow an exact value of these two features simultaneously, this situation cannot be. There must exist a minimum of energy, which is then called a vacuum. This whirled particles described above are described as vacuum fluctuations. According to Einstein's equivalence equation of mass and energy E = mc² , energy can be converted into mass. Suddenly pairs of particles (particles with their antiparticles) occur into existence in order to separate, where they "borrow" some energy from the vacuum and they look around a little bit and then get back together and with emission of the "borrowed" radiation energy to annihilate, this is dissolving into nothingness. This process needs only 10-21 seconds and it happens in a small room of about 10 -10 cm. These particles are called virtual particles. They cannot be observed directly in a particle detector. But the influence of their energy effects to electron ways, this means, they were detected.


5. The Big Bang

In the vacuum due to the vacuum fluctuation a so-called quantum foam is formed. From this in a kind of crystallization point an agglomeration of particles is formed. By this way always spontaneous universes emerges in the "empty space", but they develop differently depending on their initial conditions. Stephen Hawking compares this process with the formation of vapor bubbles in boiling water, which is very clear description. This created universes are multiverses, because so many universes. The most are very small, microscopic small, and they disappear almost immediately. Some, however, are slightly larger and indeed so large, that they cannot collapse more. The substance of these universes is extremely compact. By this it then comes to a so-called inflation, a huge increase in a very short period of time with a very high temperature. This inflation will be different by any of the further expanding universes. Starting from the initial conditions as different matter accumulation and speed of growing and other factors after the emergence the different universes have different developments. According to M-theory, the mathematical possibilities for the formation of the dimensions is indeed limited but to a very large number of up to 10500 options. By each of the universes the choice of the dimensions as how much are large or up-rolled decides by what natural laws this universe is then determined. In our universe is 11 up-rolled dimensions were formed, of which then some have evolved to four large dimensions, three of space and one time dimension. This means that our laws of nature and interactions of nature were established, which our science have explored with the time to explain our near and wider environment.
In our universe, inflation began after a micro short time after the emergence as the earliest predictable date, the Planck-time, this are 10 -43 seconds. After 10 -39 seconds, the universe had a temperature of 100 billion billion billion degrees Kelvin (10 29
K). For comparison, our sun has a temperature of 5,800 K. The inflation increase would have an expansion amount by a factor of 10 30 to 10 100 in a span of 10 -30 seconds.
Stephen Hawking like to illustrate the comparison of the enlargement with a 1 cent coin to 10 million times of the width of our Milky way in this extremely minimal period.
Hawking had shown by its Hawking radiation that the emitted particle pairs of vacuum fluctuation, for example at the edge of black holes, do not necessarily destroy themselves together. By our inflation there was enough energy available due to the large temperature, that the particles needed no longer to destroy each with another and they were able to convert to real particles. In 10 -6 seconds after the Big Bang, the temperature had dropped to 10 K 13
. There were left then more unpaired particles such as Quarks and antiquarks. Here, an initially low asymmetry must have got stronger that more quarks than antiquarks were preserved, which in packs of three added together to protons and neutrons. Before the first second the synthesis of the first atoms began. They were formed to 75% hydrogen, 24% helium and a small amount of lithium. Larger atoms were produced a few 100,000 years after the Big Bang after further cooling, at core mergers exploding stars as supernovas.
Here is a table of the time after the Big Bang:

The time after the Big Bang
Time                        |    t = 0*         10-39s        10-6s        1s          1h          7d            1a         105 a
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Temperature  K       |      ∞             1029          1013       1010      2x108   17x106     2x106    5800
Matter density **    |      ∞              1084                       5x10-5                    10-6       <10-9      10-19 
Pressure  atm           |     ∞                                               1021                      109          106
Occurance of ***    |                    Inflation      q,e,p,n        H          He                                   Stars

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
*) ∞ = singularity, s = sec., h = hours, d = days, a = ears
**)  g/m
***)  q = quarks, e = elektrons und positrons, p = protons, n = neutrons, H = hydrogen, He = helium
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

In the inflation of our universe, the matter should have normally expanded homogeneously and uniformly. But we still receive by the so-called background radiation a picture of our universe after the inflation during it is cooled. This background radiation (This new map of the ESA) is a weak microwave radiation of photons as from 15 seconds after the start of the Big Bang, which we still see today in our television sets as a snow noise, when there is no proper channel with a stronger radiation is adjusted.

Here a linked image to Wikipedia: Temperature fluctuations in the background radiation received by the WMAP spacecraft (Mission 2001-2010)

            
                                          Hintergrundstrahlung

This shows how we can get more information from the past today. On an image (see above) of this background radiation the distribution of matter is not so homogeneous as assumed above. There are areas with minimal slightly higher and lower density of matter. This is again a consequence of vacuum fluctuations. With the further expansion of our universe, it follows that in these matter condensations stars could arise and also the galaxies.
In the exploration of our universe, there were different assumptions, for the later development. It has become more and more extended in the past, what has been measured. This could eventually come to a stop and then remain constancy of the universe or it could contract again, and eventually disappear. Today it is believed that the universe is expanding steadily and more rapidly. About a possible end we can still speculate.

6. The cosmic evolution

With the dimensions of the Big Bang and thus the laws of nature with their physical constants of our universe are set and this determines the further development. The formation of stars and galaxies still needed some time. Our milky way had been formed with its center after 800 million years, and the outer flat disk after 8 billion years. The chemical elements, especially carbon, were formed, as we already have said, after a few 100,000 years by collapsing and exploding stars and then distributed into the space so that they could contribute to the formation of new stars. Thus matter is distributed in the universe over the time and the formation and death of stars was running. Therefore, we have, as described at the beginning, this huge number of solar systems. The planets revolve around these suns in elliptical orbits. There are also binary stars, where the planets fly in a roller coaster turns around the one and then the second star. Our earth circles around the sun in a very weak elliptical orbit, i.e. it moves in a nearly circular orbit. Thus, a condition was created, that life was able on our planet. Because we have a fairly constant temperature on our earth, whose height is determined by the distance to the sun. In contrast, by an elliptical orbit there are large temperature fluctuations, which is hostile to life. We have so very special conditions on our earth that allow our life. Due to the chemical elements, mainly hydrogen, oxygen and carbon, we have chemical compounds that make possible our life by the relatively constant temperature. There is first water H2O, which is liquid between 0 °C and 100 °C. Then the carbon can form solid compounds, but in form of carbon dioxide CO2 it is a gas. Together with the gases oxygen O2 and nitrogen N2 these are the main ingredients of our atmosphere. Finally, the size of our earth and by this the force of attraction (gravitation) determines the scale of the beings. These are all important requirements which are necessary for our life as it is created by evolution. Of course, now we can come to the question, if there is more life in our universe. Because on the one hand these special conditions of a planet that enable life do not have all together a great chance, but on the other hand, there is this incredible large number of planets that the occurrence of the same living conditions makes more likely. Therefore, this is probably not necessary to answer question at present. You can describe in any case the development of our universe from the Big Bang to the present state of the galaxies, solar systems and earth as a kind of cosmic evolution that has been going on 13.7 billion years.

We have therefore formed a veritable evolution series:
1. The cosmic evolution
2. The evolution of life on Earth due to Darwin
3. The evolution of information to the Internet (See: "The Internet, at the moment the end of an information evolution" -  (Comment [3]))
These merge into each other and thus form a continuous series.

Then there is an important fact to notice. The energy of the universe can be determined and this is calculated to be zero. The reason therefore is partly the fact that gravity is a negative energy, because you need power to pull away a planet from his star. This corresponds to the energy conservation law, which must be true. And so has the state before our big bang with zero energy and the current energy content of the universe now with also zero, the same energy values. A more scientifically based argument for our explanations.


7. The answer

We have now created the basics to come to our results and to answer the question "Who is God?".

The answer is: It may certainly be that a God exist, such as Karel Gott (the singer), but there is no God as the creator of our universe and the humanity.
So again in short: God does not exist. He is pure illusion.
-  (Comment [4])

Reasons: According to the above arguments, which are scientifically justified, our universe arose spontaneously among other universes out of nothing by the vacuum fluctuations, and gave himself constantly evolving. After the Big Bang, the universe gets by the given possibilities of its initial conditions, such as the total mass and velocity formed of expansion, one of the possible structures with the large and up-rolled dimensions, and thus the natural laws and physical constants of our universe were set. From these requirements then our universe developed in an incredible diversity so that there are multiple billion-fold variations for solar systems. The great mass of the universe with its many galaxies could be drawn arbitrarily from nothing by the particle pair genesis. This matter is partially converted to negative energy such as gravity, so that in the end the overall energy balance of the universe is equal to zero as at the beginning of the Big Bang and thus the conservation of energy is affirmed. In this huge number of possibilities of solar systems, then it was possible that such a planet as our earth was created, which has the conditions that, in a process of evolution, life can rise to what we have today. This could all run independently without any external influence, and without that we need a creator.

Our justification for the non-existence of God based on scientific evidence and therefore has yet another quality as the reasoning of Hans Küng, in his book "Does God exist?", where he wants to have proved the existence of God, because in the course of mankind in all possible directions of philosophy man still believes in God. This is no proof, in contrast to the results listed above.

With the above reasoning also stuff falls away, which causes some problems with a God as creator. There is once the question, if God is our creator, then who has created God? And this you could continue like a Russian matryoshka doll only with infinite output.
Furthermore, there is with a God as the creator the question, why this creator, who should be a good architect yet, has created such a huge universe to create life on a tiny point as our earth. Such a procedure would have to be rejected by the Green Party as ecologically totally uneconomic today. So in my opinion this would be a very lousy witness to this architect God. Logically reasonable is our statement that this large selection of planets with their different conditions provides a special planet like our earth which had the chance for the emergence of life through the evolution.


8. Conclusion

The result of our research is certainly that the religions do not like it, because they are thus deprived of their existence virtually. They will certainly come polemically with not solid arguments against or result. But the past has shown yet again that the Church had contradicted first the scientific evidence (see, e.g., Galileo Galilei), but most then they had to reluctantly accept the results (See: "Who is God? Part 1 - 6. Conclusion"). In the end, the M-theory, which still needs some for further research, will one day have the same status as the theory of relativity, i.e. it will be recognized as totally true theory to describe our nature. Then it becomes difficult for religions. For example, the churches will be dealing with compensation claims, because the people will feel cheated with a false truth of a God who does not exist, and they may reclaim their church tax.

PS: If you want to delve deeper into the issues listed, I recommend to read the book "The Grand Design" by Stephen Hawking himself. This more fundamental arguments are still listed on the facts, which could not all be listed here in the shortness.


9. Comments:

[1] : The relativity theory in practice:  Our navigation devices operate with the GPS satellite system. This results for locating a point on the earth in an accuracy of about 10 m. We get this, because the calculation of the coordinates by the system is computed including the theory of relativity by Albert Einstein. If this is neglected and the calculation is performed only by the classical Newtonian mechanics, then localization errors of about 10 km would occur. This is a current practical proof that the theory of relativity is correct.
Here is a article for this:  Real-World Relativity: The GPS Navigation System   
[back]

[2] :
This is:  0,00000000000000000000000000000000001 m.  [back]

[3] :
My prediction in the article, "The Internet, at the moment the end of an information evolution" of 2008 with the improved supply of internet via mobile phone has now get true through the development and proliferation of smartphones.  [back]

[4] : What Albert Einstein thought about that? Here's a translated quote: "What do you read about my religious convictions, of course, is a lie, one that is repeated systematically. I do not believe in a personal God and I have never concealed that too, but always clearly expressed. When in me is something that could be described as religious, then it is the unbounded admiration for the structure of the world so far as our science can reveal it." [back]



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